Learn About the Geography of Mexico

Mexico is a country in North America that's south of the United States. Mexico also shares borders with the countries of Belize and Guatemala. The bodies of water that border it are the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Pacific Ocean. It's the most populated Spanish-speaking country in the world and the tenth most populated country overall. The major cities of the country are Mexico City, Guadalajara, León, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, and Tijuana.

Fun Facts

Geography of Mexico

Mexico includes a lot of different types of terrain. The center of Mexico is made up of deep canyons and high mountains. The north of the country contains deserts. The south and east of the country have dense rain forests. The mountains that make up a lot of Mexico's geography consist of two major mountain ranges: the Sierra Madre Occidental in the west and the Sierra Madre Oriental in the east. Additionally, the Central Plateau has smaller mountain ranges. The mountain areas have valuable resources like metals. The Yucatán Peninsula is located off of a tip of southeastern Mexico and is bordered on three sides by the Gulf of Mexico. The Maya people once occupied the peninsula, and many artifacts of their civilization remain today.


The first complex, organized society in Mexico emerged around 1200 B.C. They were known as the Olmec people, and they were located in the southeastern part of the country. The Maya, Toltec, and Aztec civilizations followed the Olmec. These ancient societies studied the stars, made great works of art, built large cities, and erected pyramids. However, when the Spanish arrived in the first part of the 16th century, they brought diseases that sickened and killed the natives. The Spanish captured Mexico and ruled the land until 1821.

Mexico's Government and Economy

Mexico's economy benefits from the natural resources of the land, including copper, oil, and silver. Manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism also are essential parts of Mexico's economy.

Mexico is a federal republic that consists of 31 states and a federal district. The Mexican constitution dates back to 1917 and has been amended many times since. The constitution grants civil liberties and personal freedoms to the Mexican people. The federal government is described in the constitution, and the government's powers are divided between the executive, judicial, and legislative branches, a lot like how the United States government is set up.

People and Culture of Mexico

Mexican culture is influenced by the rich history of its native peoples, the Spanish who ruled the country for three centuries, and the influence of the United States on its northern border. Since ancient times, Mexico has produced great art and impressive artists. Ancient cultures created beautiful jewelry, murals, and sculptures. Today, artists make paintings, sculptures, murals, jewelry, and photographs.

Along with art, Mexicans have a long history and tradition of sports. An ancient ball game was played in Mexico centuries ago, and back then, the losers were sometimes killed. Today, competitors in bullfighting and rodeo still endanger their lives while engaging in sports, but the most popular sports in Mexico are ones that are common in other countries, too, like soccer and baseball.

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